Books I Recommend: Nefertiti of Egypt by Mary Englar

Hey, everyone! This is my 55th book recommendation. I hope you enjoy!

1. Nefertiti of Egypt by Mary Englar

2. Miró by Nicholas Ross

3. The Journey of Tunuri and the Blue Deer by James Endredy

4. Sea Monster Surprise by Geronimo Stilton

5. The Phantom of the Subway by Geronimo Stilton

6. The Secret of Goldenrod by Jane O’Reilly

7. A Child’s Christmas in Wales by Dylan Thomas

8. Maggie’s Door by Patricia Reilly Giff

9. The Tarantula in My Purse And 172 Other Wild Pets by Jean Craighead George

10. The Amazing Life of Benjamin Franklin by James Cross Giblin

11. Attitude of Gratitude by Julie Andrews and Emma Walton Hamilton

12. Miracle on 133rd Street by Sonia Manzano

13. Where Once There Was a Wood by Denise Fleming

14. Mirror Mirror by Marilyn Singer

15. Wishing Day by Lauren Myracle

16. The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben

17. The Bravest Princess by E.D. Baker

18. A Whole Lot of Lucky by Danette Haworth

19. The Finders-Keepers Rule by Jacqueline Dembar Greene

20. The Steps Across The Water by Adam Gopnick

21. Almanac 2017 by National Geographic Kids

22. The Temple of the Ruby Of Fire by Geronimo Stilton

23. SpaceX And Tesla Motors Engineer by Matt Doeden

24. Someday Dancer by Sarah Rubin

25. The Case of the Golden Key by James Preller

26. The Case of the Great Sled Race by James Preller

27. The Case of the Groaning Ghost by James Preller

28. My Autosaurus Will Win! by Geronimo Stilton

29. Everything Kids’ Science Experiments Book by Tom Robinson

30. Almanac 2016 by National Geographic Kids

31. The Curse of Ravenscourt by Sarah Masters Buckley

32. Midnight Blue by Pauline Fisk

33. Mrs. Claus Doesn’t Climb Telephone Poles by Debbie Dadey and Marcia Thornton

34. The Knight at Dawn by Mary Pope Osborne

35. Judy Moody Gets Famous! by Megan McDonald

36. Robots Rule the School by Ada Hopper

37. Christmas by Nancy Dickman

38. Waiting for Noël by Ann Dixon

39. Star Blanket by Pat Brisson

40. Ten Days a Mad Woman by Deborah Noyes

41. Indian Boyhood by Charles Eastman

42. Willa Cather by Milton Meltzer

43. Ballerina Get Ready by Allegra Kent

44. Between Heaven and Earth by Howard Norman

45. Between Earth and Sky by Joseph Bruchac

46. The Lizard Man of Crabtree County by Lucy Nolan

47. Jingle Dancer by Cynthia Leitich Smith

48. In Our Mothers’ House by Patricia Polacco

49. Diana’s White House Garden by Elisa Carbone

50. A Picture Book of Dwight David Eisenhower by David A. Adler

51. The Story of Snowflake and Inkdrop by Pierdomenico Baccalario and Alessandro Gatti

52. The Story of Inkdrop and Snowflake by Pierdomenico Baccalario and Alessandro Gatti

53. So Happy! by Kevin Henkes

54. Washington by Steven Otfinoski, Tea Benduhn, and Hex Kleinmartin

55. Father Abraham Lincoln and His Sons by Harold Holzer

56. Rock Candy Treasure by Helen Perelman

57. Umbrella Summer by Lisa Graff

*If you’re wondering, the blue links are Amazon Affiliates’ links. It means that if you click on 1 of the Amazon Affiliates for more info about a book, and if you buy a book, we will get a couple of cents.

Learn About Christmas

Gallery

Tweet Hello, everyone! You might want to know more about Christmas. Thank you for visiting my blog! Christmas is my favorite holiday. In Argentina, the weather is almost always warm at Christmas. Preparations for Christmas begin very early in December … Continue reading

Interesting Facts About Rocks

Hey there! I’m researching rocks because I’m curious about them. I also like rocks because they are so interesting. Enjoy!

Geologists define rocks as aggregate of minerals. Minerals are naturally occurring, not unhealthy substances with specific chemical compositions and structures. A rock can be filled of many crystals of one or more minerals, or combinations of many minerals. Several exceptions, such as coal and obsidian, are not composed of minerals but are thought to be rocks.

People often use rocks for include building materials, roofs, sculpture, jewelry, tombstones, chalk, coal for heat, and more. Oil and natural gas can also be found in rocks. Many metals like a fork are made from rocks known as ores. Even, prehistoric humans used rocks as early as 2,000,000 B.C. Flint and other hard rocks were very important raw materials for crafting arrowheads and other special natural made rocks.

Around 500,000 B.C., rock caves and structures made from stones had become important forms of shelter for early man. During that time, early men had learned to use fire, a development that allowed humans to cook food as needed to survive and greatly expand their geographical range. Eventually, most likely no sooner than 5000 B.C., humans had realized that minerals such as gold and copper could be from rocks. Tons of ancient monuments were crafted from stone, including the pyramids of Egypt, built from limestone about 2500 B.C., and the buildings of Chichen Itza in Mexico, also of limestone, built near A.D. 450.

Since the 1500s, scientists have studied minerals and mining, fundamental aspects of the study of rocks. Georg Bauer published Concerning Metallic Things in 1556. By 1785, the British geologist James Hutton published Theory of the Earth, in which he explained his observations of rocks in Great Britain and his conclusion that Earth is much older than previous scientists before him had guessed. Geologists are scientists who study the earth and rocks, distinguish three main groups of rocks: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks.

These distinctions are made on the basis of the types of minerals in the rock, the shapes of individual mineral grains, and the overall texture of the rock, all of which indicate the environment, pressure, and temperature in which the rock was made. Igneous rocks form when magma is below the land of the Earth or lava at the land of the Earth hardens. The minerals in the rock will make crystals or grow together so that the separate crystals make 1 crystal altogether. Igneous rocks and magma make up much of the oceanic and continental crust, as well as most of the rock deeper in the Earth.

Igneous rocks can be identified by the interlocking appearance of the crystals in them. Typical igneous rocks do not have a layered texture, but exceptions exist. For example, in large bodies of igneous rock, relatively thick crystals that are made early can sink to the bottom of the magma, and less thick layers of crystals that are made later can accumulate on top. Igneous rocks can form deep within the Earth or at the surface of the Earth in volcanoes.

In general, igneous rocks that form deep within the Earth have large crystals that indicate a longer period of time during which the magma cools. Igneous rocks that form at or near the surface of the Earth, such as volcanic igneous rocks, cool quickly and contain smaller crystals that are difficult to see without magnification. Obsidian, also called volcanic glass, cools down so fast that no crystals are made. Nevertheless, obsidian is considered to be an igneous rock.

Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of how much minerals there are and the size of the crystals in the rock. Extrusive igneous rocks have small crystals and crystallize at or near the Earth’s surface. Intrusive igneous rocks cool slowly below the Earth’s surface and have larger crystals. Rocks made up of thick, dark-colored minerals like olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, and plagioclase are called mafic igneous rocks.

Light-colored, less thick minerals, including quartz, mica, and feldspar are called felsic igneous rocks. Common igneous rocks include the felsic igneous rocks granite and rhyolite, and the mafic igneous rocks gabbro and basalt. Granite is an intrusive igneous rock that includes large crystals of the minerals quartz, feldspar, mica, and amphibole that form deep within the Earth. Rhyolite includes the same minerals, but forms as extrusive igneous rock near the surface of the Earth or in volcanoes and cools quickly from magma or lava, so its crystals are difficult to observe with the naked eye.

Similarly, gabbro is more coarse-grained than basalt and made deeper down in the Earth, but both rocks include the minerals pyroxene, feldspar, and olivine. Fabulous exposures of igneous rocks occur in the volcanoes of Hawaii, volcanic rocks of Yellowstone National Park are located in Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, in Lassen Volcanic National Park and Yosemite National Park in California. Sedimentary rocks are those made of grains of preexisting rocks or organic material that, in most cases, have been eroded, deposited, compacted, and cemented together. They typically form at the surface of the Earth as sediment moves as a result of the action of wind, water, ice, gravity, or a combination of these.

Sedimentary rocks also form as chemicals precipitate from seawater, or through accumulation of organic material such as plant debris or animal shells. Common sedimentary rocks include shale, sandstone, limestone, and conglomerate. Sedimentary rocks typically have a layered appearance because most sediments are deposited in horizontal layers and are buried beneath later deposits of sediments over long periods of time. Sediments deposited rapidly, however, tend to be poorly layered if layers are visible at all.

Sedimentary rocks are made in many different environments at the surface of the Earth. Eolian, or wind blown, sediments can accumulate in deserts. Rivers carry sediments and deposit them along their banks or into lakes or oceans. Glaciers make unusual deposits of a wide variety of sediments that they pick up as the glacier expands and moves; glacial deposits are well exposed in the northern United States. Sediments can travel in currents below sea level to the deepest parts of the ocean floor.

Secretion of calcium carbonate shells by reef-building organisms produce large quantities of limestone. Evaporation of seawater has resulted in the formation of widespread layers of salt and gypsum. Swamps rich in plants can produce coal if organic material accumulates and is buried before aerobic bacteria can destroy the dead plants. Sedimentary rocks are classified on the basis of the sizes of the particles in the rock and the composition of the rock.

Clastic sedimentary rocks comprise fragments of preexisting rocks and minerals. Chemical precipitates are sedimentary rocks that are made by precipitation of minerals from seawater, salt lakes, or mineral-rich springs. Organic sedimentary rocks formed from organic matter or organic activity, such as coal and limestone made by reef-building organisms like coral. Grain sizes in sedimentary rocks range from fine clay and silt to sand to boulders.

The sediment in a sedimentary rock reflects its environment of deposition. For example, wind-blown sand grains commonly is evidence of abrasion of their surfaces as a result of colliding with other grains. Sediments transported long distances tend to decrease in size and are more rounded than sediment deposited near their precursor rocks because of wearing against other sediments or rocks. Large or heavy sediments tend to wear out of water or wind if the energy of the water or wind is insufficient to carry the sediments.

Sediments deposited rapidly as a result of slides or slumps tend to include a larger range of sediment sizes, from large boulders to pebbles to sand grains and flakes of clay. Such rocks are called conglomerate. Along beaches, the rhythmic activity of waves moving sediment back and forth produces sandstones in which the grains are well rounded and of similar size. Glaciers pick up and carry a wide variety of sediments and often scratch or scrape the rocks over which they travel.

Sedimentary rocks are the only rocks in which fossils can be preserved because at the elevated temperatures and pressures in which igneous and metamorphic rocks form, fossils and organic remnants are ruined. The presence of fossils and the types of fossil organisms in a rock provide clues about the environment and age of sedimentary rocks. For example, fossils of human beings are not present in rocks older than approximately two million years because humans did not exist before then. Similarly, dinosaur fossils do not occur in rocks younger than about 65 million years because dinosaurs became extinct at that very time.

Fish fossils in sedimentary rock indicate that the sediments that make up the rock were deposited in a lake, river, or marine environment. By establishing the environment of the fossils in a rock, scientists learn more about the conditions under which the rock formed.

Spectacular exposures of sedimentary rocks include the Grand Canyon which is in Arizona, the eolian sandstones of Zion National Park which is in Utah, the limestones of Carlsbad National Park which is in New Mexico, and glacial features of Voyageurs National Park which is in Minnesota. Metamorphic rocks are named for the process of change that affects rocks. The changes that make metamorphic rocks usually include rises in the temperature (generally to 392°F) and the pressure of a precursor rock, which can be igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic, to a degree that the minerals in the rock are no longer stable. The rock might change in mineral content or appearance, or even both. Clues to identifying metamorphic rocks include the presence of minerals such as mica, amphibole, staurolite, and garnet, and layers in which minerals are aligned as a result of pressure applied to the rock.

Common metamorphic rocks include slate, schist, and gneiss. Metamorphic rocks commonly are made in mountains such as the Appalachian Mountains, parts of California, and the ancient, eroded metamorphic rocks in the Llano Uplift of central Texas. Metamorphic rocks are classified depending on their constituent minerals and texture. Foliated metamorphic rocks are those that have a layered texture. In foliated metamorphic rocks, elongate or platy minerals such as mica and amphibole become aligned as a result of pressure on the rock. Foliation can range from alternating layers of light and dark minerals typical of gneiss to the seemingly perfect alignment of platy minerals in slate.

Some metamorphic rocks aren’t foliated and have a massive texture devoid of layers. Mineralogy of metamorphic rocks reflects the mineral content of the precursor rock and the pressure and temperature at which metamorphism occurs. As sediments undergo metamorphism, the layers of sediment can be folded or become more pronounced as pressure on the rock increases. Elongate or platy minerals in the rock tend to become aligned in the same direction.

For example, when shale metamorphoses to slate, it becomes easier to split the well-aligned layers of the slate into thin, flat sheets. This property of slate makes it an attractive roofing material. Marble-metamorphosed limestone typically does not have the pronounced layers of slate, but is used for flooring and sculptures.

Metamorphism of igneous rocks can cause the different minerals in the rocks to separate into layers. When granite metamorphoses into gneiss, layers of light-colored minerals and dark-colored minerals form. As with sedimentary rocks, elongate or platy minerals become well-aligned as pressure on the rock increases.

As sediments undergo metamorphism, the layers of sediment can be folded or become more pronounced as pressure on the rock increases. Elongate or platy minerals in the rock tend to become aligned in the same direction. For example, when shale metamorphoses to slate, it becomes easier to split the well-aligned layers of the slate into thin, flat sheets. This property of slate makes it an attractive roofing material.

Marble-metamorphosed limestone-typically does not have the pronounced layers of slate, but is used for flooring and sculptures. Metamorphism of igneous rocks can cause the different minerals in the rocks to separate into layers. When granite metamorphoses into gneiss, layers of light-colored minerals and dark-colored minerals are made. As with sedimentary rocks, elongate or platy minerals become well-aligned as pressure on the rock increases.

It is possible for metamorphic rocks to change into other metamorphic rocks. In some regions, especially areas where mountain building is taking place, it is not unusual for several episodes of change to affect rocks. It can be difficult to unravel the effects of each episode of metamorphism. The word igneous comes from the Latin word ignis which means of fire. Sedimentary rocks make layers at the bottoms of oceans and lakes.

Layers of sedimentary rocks are called strata.

I got this photo at http://www.hydroponicsnewyorkcity.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/river-rocks.jpgimage but originally Google Images.

What Websites I used:

http://science.jrank.org/pages/5919/Rocks.html

http://www.ducksters.com/science/rocks.php

A Friendship Story: A Friendship Between 4 Types of Candy

Hi there! This story will be for friendship. It should be helpful. You are about to enter a story about 4 candies friendship with a moral.

Jellybean went walking and found his friend Rocky (also known as Rock Candy). So Jellybean told him his wish of how he wanted to be seen. After that, Rocky set off to help his friend with a flyer. Shortly after, he ran into Orange Slice.

So he told Orange all about it. Before long, Orange set off to help Jellybean. After that, the candies became desperate and determined to help Jellybean.

A few days later, they ran into Jellybean and they told him their plan and he liked it. The plan was to let Jellybean do funny tricks. In 2 days, they put on a show.

In just 2 months, he got extremely popular. He was happy that his wish came true. From that day, they became best friends.

The moral of that story was if you wish something badly and you tell someone. Chances are you might just get your wish. Wasn’t that a great story?

20150610-110946.jpg

I found this photo on Google Images although this photo was really on http://www.economycandy.com/index.php?dispatch=products.view&product_id=753

Subscribe to Lillian Darnell by Email