Books I Recommend: Crane by Jeff Stone

Hey, everyone! This is my 54th book recommendation. I hope you enjoy!

1. Crane by Jeff Stone

2. Genie in a Bottle by Sarah Mlynowski

3. Night of the Ninth Dragon by Mary Pope Osborne

4. Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! by Nancy Krulik

5. Another Kind of Hurricane by Tamra Ellis Smith

6. O Come, All Ye Faithful by David Christiana

7. Karate Katie by Nancy Krulik

8. Get Into Gear, Stilton! by Geronimo Stilton

9. Waggit’s Tale by Peter Howe

10. Waggit Again by Peter Howe

11. Christmas by Natalie M. Rosinsky

12. Christmas in England by Cheryl L. Enderlein

13.  The Polar Express by Chris Van Allsburg

14. Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis

15. Christmas by Arlene Erlbach

16. Celebrate Christmas with Carols, Presents, and Peace by Deborah Heiligman

17. Christmas in Australia by Ellen Hughes

18. Christmas in Russia by World Book Inc.

19. Victorian Christmas by Bobbie Kalman and Barbara Bedell

20. Cam Jansen and the Scary Snake Mystery by David A. Adler

21. Truth with a Capital T by Bethany Hegedus

22. Cam Jansen and the Sports Day Mysteries by David A. Adler

23. Cam Jansen and the Green School Mystery by David A. Adler

24. My Life as a Cartoonist by Janet Tashjian

25. Christmas USA by Mary D. Lankford

26. The Kingfisher Book of Classic Christmas Stories by Ian Whybrow

29. Fright Night by Geronimo Stilton

30. Wish Upon a Starfish by Debbie Dadey

31. Dragon by Jeff Stone

32. Chickadee by Louise Erdrich

33. Bakers on Board by Sheryl Berk and Carrie Berk

34. Mouse by Jeff Stone

35. Ruffleclaw by Cornelia Funke

36. Emma and the Blue Genie by Cornelia Funke

37. The Mother-Daughter Book Club by Heather Vogel Frederick

38. The Art and Life of Roy Lightenstein by Susan Goldman Rubin

39. Las Posadas by Diane Hoyt-Goldsmith

40. Happy New Year, Beni by Jane Breskin Zalben

41. Five Children on the Western Front by Kate Saunders

42. Snake by Jeff Stone

43. Looking at Paintings by National Gallery Company Limited

44. Marilyn Monroe by Lisa Owings

45. Mockingbird by Kathryn Erskine

46. Stranded In Boringsville by Catherine Bateson

47. A Fairy’s Gift by Kiki Thorpe

48. The Shimmering Stone by Paula Harrison

49. Honey by Sarah Weeks

50. The Friend by Sarah Stewart

51. Eight Winter Nights by Laura Krauss Melmed

52. The Little Match Girl by Christine San José

53. Washington, D.C. by Blake Hoena

54. My Life With Nature by Joseph Cornell

55. The Dreidel That Wouldn’t Spin by Martha Seif Simpson

56. How To Draw Fish by Justin Lee

*Just so you know, these blue links are Amazon Affiliates.  This actually means that if you click on one of the Amazon Affiliates for more info about a book, and if you buy a book, we will get a few cents.  

Learn About Christmas

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Tweet Hello, everyone! You might want to know more about Christmas. Thank you for visiting my blog! Christmas is my favorite holiday. In Argentina, the weather is almost always warm at Christmas. Preparations for Christmas begin very early in December … Continue reading

The History of Cupcakes

Hi there! I decided to research about cupcakes because I was reading a fictional cupcake book. Hope you enjoy the cupcake facts!

The cupcake evolved in the United States in the 19th century, and it was revolutionary because of the amount of time it saved in the kitchen. There was a shift from weighing out ingredients when baking to measuring out ingredients. According to the Food Timeline Web, food historians have yet to pinpoint exactly where the name of the cupcake originated.

There are two theories: one, the cakes were originally cooked in cups and two, the ingredients used to make the cupcakes were measured out by the cup. In the beginning, cupcakes were sometimes called “number” cakes, because they were easy to remember by the measurements of ingredients it took to create them: One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, four eggs, one cup of milk, and one spoonful of soda. Clearly, cupcakes today have expanded to a wide variety of ingredients, measurements, shapes, and decorations – but this was one of the first recipes for making what we know today as cupcakes.

Cupcakes were convenient because they cooked much quicker than larger cakes. When baking was down in hearth ovens, it would take a long time to bake a cake, and the final product would often be burned. Muffin tins, also called gem pans, were popular around the turn of the 20th century, so people started created cupcakes in tins.

Since their creation, cupcakes have become a pop culture trend in the culinary world. They have spawned dozens of bakeries devoted entirely to them. While chocolate and vanilla remain classic favorites, fancy flavors such as raspberry meringue and espresso fudge can be found on menus.

There are cookbooks, blogs, and magazines specifically dedicated to cupcakes. Icing, also called frosting in the United States, is a sweet often creamy glaze made of sugar with a liquid, such as water or milk, that is often enriched with ingredients such as butter, egg whites, cream cheese, or flavorings. It is used to cover or decorate baked goods.

Elizabeth Raffald documented the first recipe for icing in 1769 in the Experienced English Housekeeper, according to the Food Timeline. The simplest icing is a glace icing, containing powdered sugar and water. This can be flavored and colored as desired, for example, by using lemon juice in place of the water.

More complicated icings can be made by beating fat into powdered sugar (as in buttercream), by melting fat and sugar together, by using egg whites (as in royal icing), and by adding other ingredients such as glycerin (as in fondant). Some icings can be made from combinations of sugar and cream cheese or sour cream, or by using ground almonds (as in marzipan). The first mention of the cupcake can be traced as far back as 1796, when a recipe notation of “a cake to be baked in small cups” was written in American Cookery by Amelia Simmons.

The earliest documentation of the term cupcake was in ‘Seventy-five Receipts for Pastry, Cakes, and Sweetmeats’ in 1828 in Eliza Leslie’s Receipts cookbook. In the early 19th century, there were two different uses for the name cup cake or cupcake. In previous centuries, before muffin tins were widely available, the cakes were often baked in individual pottery cups, ramekins, or molds and took their name from the cups they were baked in.

This is the use of the name that has remained, and the name of “cupcake” is now given to any small cake that is about the size of a teacup. The name “fairy cake” is a fanciful description of its size, which would be appropriate for a party of diminutive fairies to share. While English fairy cakes vary in size more than American cupcakes, they are traditionally smaller and are rarely topped with elaborate icing.

The other kind of “cup cake” referred to a cake whose ingredients were measured by volume, using a standard-sized cup, instead of being weighed. Recipes whose ingredients were measured using a standard-sized cup could also be baked in cups; however, they were more commonly baked in tins as layers or loaves. In later years, when the use of volume measurements was firmly established in home kitchens, these recipes became known as 1234 cakes or quarter cakes, so called because they are made up of four ingredients: one cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, and four eggs.

They are plain yellow cakes, somewhat less rich and less expensive than pound cake, due to using about half as much butter and eggs compared to pound cake. The names of these two major classes of cakes were intended to signal the method to the baker; “cup cake” uses a volume measurement, and “pound cake” uses a weight measurement. Cupcakes have become more than a trend over the years, they’ve become an industry!

Paper baking cups first hit U.S. markets after the end of the World War II. An artillery manufacturer called the James River Corporation began manufacturing cupcake liners for U.S. markets when its military markets began to diminish. By 1969, they consolidated business as a paper company and left artillery manufacturing behind.

During the 1950s, the paper baking cup gained popularity as U.S. housewives purchased them for convenience. Their flexibility grew when bakers realized that they could bake muffins as well as cupcakes in the baking cups. The modern idea of the cupcake is probably different from the historical origin of the phrase.

Imagine what it would be like being a cook in 19th-century Britain or North America. When food historians approach the topic of cupcakes, they run into a gray area in which the practice of making individual cup-sized cakes can become confused with the convention of making cakes with cup-measured ingredients. The notion of baking small cakes in individual containers probably began with the use of clay or earthenware mugs.

It could have been a way to use up extra batter; to make the most efficient use of a hot oven by placing small ramekins, or little baking dishes, in unused spaces; or to create an evenly baked product fast when fuel was in short supply. Early in the 20th century, the advent of multi-cupcake molded tins brought modest mass production methods to cupcake making, and a modern baking tradition was born. Cakes in some form have been around since ancient times, and today’s familiar round cakes with frosting can be traced back to the 17th century, made possible by advances in food technology such as: better ovens, metal cake molds and pans, and the refinement of sugar.

I got it at storify.com but I originally got it at Google Images.

image

Websites I used:

http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/spring07/ayers/history.html

http://people.rit.edu/kge3737/320/project3/history.html

http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/food-facts/who-invented-the-cupcake.htm

http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/Who-Invented-The-Cupcake.htm

Books I Recommend: Anastasia by A.L. Singer

Hi there, everyone! This is the 24th book recommendation list. Have a great afternoon!

1. Anastasia by A.L. Singer
2. Arizona by Pat Ryan
3. Butterfly Watching by Diane Bair and Pamela Wright
4. The Little Butterfly by Sherry Shahan
5.Butterflies by Adele D. Richardson
6. Red, White, and Blue Goodbye by Sarah Wones Tomp
7. The Hard-Times Jar by Ethel Footman Smothers
8. The Golden Sandal by Rebecca Hickox
9. The Story of the Incredible Orchestra by Bruce Kosichelniak
10. Skit-Scat Raggedy Cat by Roxanne Orgill
11. I, Galileo by Bonnie Christensenhen
12. April Fool! Watch Out at School by Diane deGroat
13. Henry’s Dragon Kite by Bruce Edward Hall
14. The Butter Man by Elizabeth Alalou and Ali Alalou
15. New Hampshire by Deborah Kent
16. Arizona by Barbara A. Somervill
17. Utah by Deborah Kent
18. Nevada by Ann Heinrichs
19. Chocolate by Robert Burleigh
20. America the Beautiful by Katherine Lee Bates
21. No Talking by Andrew Clements
22. The Book Without Words by Avi
23. Cold in Summer by Tracy Barrett
24. Anything but Typical by Nora Raleigh Baskin
25. My Unwilling Sleeps Over by Hiawyn Oram
26. Monsters Don’t Scuba Dive by Debbie Dadey and Marcia Thornton Jones
27. Starting with Alice by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor

(amazon affiliate links)

American Tree Sparrows

Hi there! My mother, Camilla suggested that I write a series of posts about birds on my blog since I’ve been talking about them and learning about them. Please let me know if you have any bird books, CDs, or a website you’d recommend! Here is the part about American Tree Sparrows.

American Tree Sparrows are small, round-headed birds that often fluff out their feathers, making their plump bodies look even chubbier. Like other sparrows, they have fairly small bills and long, thin tails. Their color pattern is a rusty cap and rusty (not black) eyeline on a gray head, a streaked brown back, and a smooth gray to buff breast in both male and female American Tree Sparrows give an overall impression of reddish-brown and gray. A dark smudge in the center of the unstreaked breast is common.

Small flocks of American Tree Sparrows hop about on the ground, scrabbling for grass and weed seeds, calling back and forth with a soft, musical twitter that might make you twitter, sing, or dance. A single American Tree Sparrow may perch in the open top of goldenrod stalks or shrubs, or on low tree branches. Look for small flocks of American Tree Sparrows in the winter in weedy fields with hedgerows or shrubs, along forest edges, or near marshes except for Reno, NV. They readily visit backyards, especially if there’s a seed feeder.

American Tree Sparrows breed in the far north and are hardly seen south of northern Canada in the summer. 4-6, usually 5. Pale bluish or greenish, with brownish spotting often concentrated at larger end. Incubation is by female, 11-13 days; male visits nest often, but does not incubate. Young: Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest at age 8-10 days, when flight feathers not yet fully grown.

Parents may lure them away from nest by offering food. Young are able to fly at about 14-15 days after hatching; parents continue to feed them for about 2 more weeks. 1 brood per season, but may attempt to renest if 1st attempt fails. Diet in the winter is almost entirely seeds, from grasses, weeds, and other plants; also a few insects and berries.

In the summer, they eat mostly insects and other small invertebrates, plus a few seeds. Young are fed mostly insects. Pairs form shortly after birds arrive on breeding grounds. Male actively defends territory, chasing away other members of same species.

Nest site is on or near ground, in grass clumps beneath shrubs. Sometimes on hummock in open tundra; rarely up to 4′ above ground in willow or spruce. Nest is an open cup of twigs, grasses, moss, lined with fine grass and with feathers (usually ptarmigan feathers). Female builds nest in about 7 days.

All wintering areas are well to the south of breeding areas. Migrates relatively late in fall and early in spring. Apparently, migrates mainly at night. On average, females winter somewhat farther south than males.

The American Tree Sparrow is a small sparrow with a long notched tail. The adult has a streaked back and wings, with two white wing bars, but is otherwise unstreaked, while the juvenile is streaky overall. Adults have an unstreaked gray-brown breast and belly, with a dark spot in the center. The tail, rump, and nape of the neck are all solid gray.

The upper mandible of the bill is dark and the lower is yellow. The head is mostly gray, with a rufous crown and eye-line. American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) breed throughout almost all of Alaska, the Yukon and Northwest territories, the very north of Manitoba and Ontario, all of Labrador, and in northern Quebec. Their winter range includes a very small part of southern Canada and all of the United States except for the western most 250 miles, the southern most 450 miles and all of Florida.

American tree sparrows usually breed near the tree line in open scrubby areas with willows, birches, alder thickets or stunted spruce. They may also breed in open tundra with scattered shrubs, often near lakes or bogs. They spend the winter in open forests, gardens, fields, and marshes. Baumgartner followed birds for the first 22 days of development.

Order of hatching was not dependent on the order of laying. Earlier hatched birds took the lead in development. During the nine and one-half days in the nest, the four feather tracts of the birds (dorsal, ventral, alar, caudal) go from completely bare to the back covered, lower belly slightly bare, wings 2/3 grown, and tail still a stub, and the birds grow from 1.62 gm to 16.7 gm, while their length goes from 33 mm to 75 mm during the same period. They lose 1.5 gm the first day out of the egg but have gained 3 gm by day 21 (Baumgartner, 1968).

On the second day after hatching the young were able to stretch for food. On the fourth day their eyes were half open, after the fifth day, wide open. The first sounds were made on the fifth day but were very soft. Fear was acquired between 7.5 and 8 days as demonstrated by their raucous calls when touched by humans.

During the first 12 days of the fledgling period (which lasts until about a month after leaving the nest in (Spizella arborea) the birds showed a steady increase in both tail length (14-47mm) and wing length (46-68mm). At the end of the first 21 days the wings were still slightly shorter and the tails about 2/3 the length of mature birds. A tree sparrow was observed to fly 30 or 40 ft fifteen days after hatching, and a little before one month after hatching, the birds could fly all around their territory. American tree sparrows are monogamous (one male mates with one female).

Males and females form breeding pairs after they arrive at the breeding sites in the spring. Both males and female sing to attract a mate. Females become excited when males come to sing nearby. They call back to the male, making a “wehy” sound.

Males may show off for females by spreading their wings and fluttering them or darting to the ground in front of the female, then flying back up to a perch. American tree sparrows breed between May and September. They raise one brood of chicks each year. The females builds the nest alone.

The nests are built on the ground out of moss, grasses, bark and twigs. They are lined with fine grass and feathers.The female then lays about 5 eggs. She lays one egg each day.

She incubates the eggs for 10 to 14 days and broods the chicks after they hatch. The chicks are altricial (helpless) when they hatch, so they rely on the female to protect them and keep them warm. Both parents feed the chicks until 2 to 3 weeks after the chicks leave the nest (called fledging). The young fledge from the nest about 9 days after hatching.

In late summer, the families join larger flocks. We do not know when young American tree sparrows begin breeding.
American tree sparrows breed once per year. Females incubate the eggs and brood the chicks after they hatch.

Both parents feed the chicks until they are about 22 days old. The oldest known American tree sparrow lived at least 10 years and 9 months. Most American tree sparrows probably live about 2.3 to 3.4 years. American tree sparrows are migratory.

Though they are usually active during the day (called diurnal), they migrate at night. American tree sparrows are territorial during the breeding season. Males sing to claim territories and they defend their territories from others. Females occasionally chase intruders too.

American tree sparrows do not defend winter territories. During the winter, they form large flocks that forage together. Within these flocks, some birds are dominant over other birds. American tree sparrows move by hopping on the ground and on branches, and by flying.

They do not swim or dive, but they do bath frequently. They roost alone trees or shrubs, haystacks, cornfields, and marshes. In the winter, they might take shelter together under the snow. American tree sparrows are omnivorous; they eat many different seeds, berries and insects.

During the winter, American tree sparrows mainly eat grass and weed seeds. During the summer, they mostly eat insects and spiders. American tree sparrows search for food among plants on the ground and the branches and twigs of shrubs and trees. In Massachusetts, they are often seen in flocks, feeding at bird feeders.

American tree sparrows need to drink a lot of water each day. During the winter, they eat snow in order to get enough water. Known predators of American tree sparrows include northern goshawks, sharp-shinned hawks, screech owls, pygmy owls, Cooper’s hawks, American kestrels, weasels, foxes, and red squirrels. When approached by humans, American tree sparrows give a rapid series of “tset” calls.

It is unknown how American tree sparrows respond to other potential predators. American tree sparrows are very important members of the food chain. They eat many weed seeds and insects and spiders, and they are an important food source for their predators.

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Sources I Used:

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Mountain_Bluebird/id

http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/mountain-bluebird

http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/mountainbluebird.htm

http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/symbol-official-item/idaho/state-bird/mountain-bluebird

http://identify.whatbird.com/obj/581/overview/Mountain_Bluebird.aspx

http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/infocenter/i7680id.html

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/california_quail/id

http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/californiaquail.htm

http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/california-quail

http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/rsgis2/search/Display.asp?FlNm=callcali

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/American_Tree_Sparrow/id

http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/american-tree-sparrow

http://birdweb.org/birdweb/bird/american_tree_sparrow

http://www.biokids.umich.edu/critters/Spizella_arborea/

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Song_Sparrow/id

http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/song-sparrow

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Books I Recommend: The Trolls by Polly Horvath

Hi there! This is the 23rd book recommendation list. I truly appreciate  everyone excluding strangers. I know that this is a lot of books to look through but you can take your time if needed. Thanks so much!

1. The Trollsby Polly Horvath
2. Hamster Magicby Lynne Jonell
3. Farmer Boyby Laura Ingalls Wilder
4.Gifts from the Seaby Natalie Kinsley-Warnock
5.Addy’s Little Brotherby Connie Porter
6. Honey Cakeby Joan Betty Stuchner
7. My Life as a Bookby Janet Tashjian
8. Oh, The Places He Wentby Maryann N. Weich
9. Saigeby Jessie Hass
10. Iridessa, Lost at Seaby Disney
11. Myka Finds Her Wayby Disney
12. Man Tripby Graham Salisbury
13. Trouble Magnetby Graham Salisbury
14. Thea Stilton and the Star Castawaysby Geronimo Stilton
15. The Canoe Trip Mysteryby Gertrude Chandler Warner
16. May Blossom of Britanniaby Anna Kirwan
17. The Girl Who Chased the Moonby Sarah Addison Allen
18. Secrets At Seaby Richard Peck
19. The Teacher’s Funeralby Richard Peck
20. Soupby Robert Newton Peck
21. On Pins and Needlesby Chloe Taylor
22. The Bus Station Mysteryby Gertrude Chandler Warner
23. The Friendshipby Mildred D. Taylor
24. Breathing Roomby Marsha Hayles
25. Clover Twig and the Magical Cottageby Kaye Umansky
26. Clover Twig and the Magical Cottageby Pam Muñoz Ryan

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Books I Recommend: A Place Where Sunflowers Grow by Amy Lee-Tai

Hi there! This is the 19th book recomendation.

1. A Place Where Sunflowers Growby Amy Lee-Tai
2. The Quilt Storyby Tony Johnston & Tomie dePaola
3. That Book Womanby Heather Henson
4. Everything New Under the Sunby Anne Mazer
5. Dumpling Daysby Grace Lin
6. Bailey the Babysitter Fairyby Daisy Meadows
7. Blue Jasmineby Kashmira Sheth
8. Addison the April Fool’s Day Fairyby Daisy Meadows
9. The Prayer of Jabez for Kidsby Bruce Wilkinson
10. Writing Magicby Gail Carson Levine
11. All That Glitters Isn’t Goldby Anne Mazer
12. The New Year Dragon Dilemmaby Ron Roy
13. Caroline and Her Sisterby Maria D. Wilkes
14. Little House by Boston Bayby Melissa Wiley
15. House Of Happiness by Neil Phillips
16. Red Butterflyby A.L. Sonnichsen
17. Greenby Laura Peyton Roberts
18. Brookfield Daysby Maria D. Wilkes
19. Is Everyone Moonburned but Me?by Stella Pevsner
20. Flamingoes by Melissa Gish
21. Birds by Dominic Couzens
22. A Kid’s First Book of Birdwatchingby Scott Weidensaul
23. Little Town on the Prairieby Laura Ingalls Wilder

(Amazon Affilate Links above)

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Books I Recommend: The Final Battle…For Now by Lauren Baratz-Logsted

Hi there! This is the 18th book recommendation!

1. The Final Battle…for Nowby Lauren Baratz-Logsted
2. Hailey Twitch and the Great Teacher Switchby Lauren Barnholdt
3. Lost and Foundby Andrew Clements
4. Hailey Twitch and the Campground Itchby Lauren Barnholdt
5. Ibby’s Magic Weekendby Heather Dyer
6. Mary Mae and the Gospel Truthby Sandra Dutton
7. The Littles and the Big Stormby John Peterson
8. Aloha, Kanani!by Lisa Yee
9. Felicity’s Short Story Collectionby Valerie Tripp
10. Molly Marches onby Valerie Tripp
11. Kaya’s Short Story Collectionby Janet Shaw
12. Caddy’s Worldby Hilary McKay
13. The Quigleys Not for Saleby Simon Mason
14. The Quigleys in a Spinby Simon Mason
15. Saffy’s Angelby Hilary McKay
16. Sixth-Grade Glommers, Norks, and Meby Liza Papademetriou
17. Sheila Rae, the Braveby Kevin Henkes
18. Hair in Funny Placesby Bobette Cole
19. The Harmonicaby Tony Johnston
20. The Barn Owlsby Tony Johnston
21. Buffalo Girlsby Bobette McCarthy
22. The Little Piano Girlby Ann Ingalls & Maryann Macdonald

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Mountain Blue Birds

Hi there! My mother, Camilla suggested that I write a series of posts about birds on my blog since I’ve been talking about them and learning about them. Please let me know if you have any bird books, CDs, or a website you’d recommend! Here is the part about Mountain Blue Birds.

Mountain Bluebirds are moderately small thrushes with round heads and straight, thin bills. Compared with other bluebirds they are slender and long-winged, with a long tail. Male Mountain Bluebirds are sky-blue, a little bit darker on the wings and the tail and a little bit paler on the belly, with white up under the tail. Females are pretty much gray-brown with tints of pale blue in the wings and the tail.

They occasionally show orange-brown throughout the chest. Mountain Bluebirds’ bills are completely black. Younger Mountain Bluebirds have fewer spots than the other young of little bluebirds. Unlike other bluebird species, Mountain Bluebirds often hover while foraging; they also pounce on their insect prey from an higher perch.

In the winter, the species often occur in large flocks wandering the landscape eating on berries, particularly some of those junipers. Mountain Bluebirds are mostly common in the West’s wide-open spaces, particularly at middle and higher elevations like mountains. They breed in native habitats such as prairie, sagebrush steppe, and even alpine tundra; anywhere with open country with at least a few trees that can provide nest cavities. They also readily take to human-altered habitats, often nesting in bluebird boxes and foraging in pastures.

The powder-blue male Mountain Bluebird is among the most beautiful birds of the West. Living in more open terrain than the other two bluebirds, this species may nest in holes in cliffs or dirt banks when tree hollows are not available. It often seeks its food by hovering low over the grass in open fields. They lay 5 to 6 eggs, sometimes 4 to 8 eggs.

Pale blue, unmarked (occasionally white) are their colors. Incubation is by female for about 13 to 17 days. Young birds: Both parents feed nestlings. Young birds leave the nest about 17 to 23 days after hatching, and are protected by their parents for another 3 to 4 weeks.

They have 2 breeds each year. Mountain Bluebirds feed heavily on insects, including beetles, grasshoppers, caterpillars, crickets, ants, bees, and others. They also eat some berries, including those of mistletoe, hackberry, and other plants. Berries are very important in their diet in the wintertime.

Sometimes interbreeds with the Eastern Bluebird where their ranges overlap. Nest: Apparently the female selects the site for the nest. The site is in a cavity, usually a natural hollow or old woodpecker hole in tree, or in a birdhouse. Sometimes nests in holes in dirt banks, crevices in cliffs or among rocks, holes in sides of buildings, old nests of other birds (such as Cliff Swallow or Dipper).

Nest in cavity (probably built by both genders) is a loose cup of weed stems, grass, twigs, rootlets, pine needles, and maybe even lined with animal hair or animal feathers. Mountain bluebirds migrate relatively late in the fall and early in the spring. Winter range varies from year to year, depending on the food supplies. Flocks sometimes wander east on the Great Plains, and lonely stray birds occasionally go as far as the Atlantic Coast.

The mountain bluebird is six to seven inches in length. The mountain bluebird breeds from east-central Alaska, southern Yukon and western Manitoba, south in the mountains to southern California, central and southeastern Nevada, northern and east-central Arizona, southern New Mexico and east to northeastern North Dakota, western South Dakota and central Oklahoma. In winters, the birds go from Oregon south to Baja California, Mexico and southern Texas, and east to eastern Kansas, western Oklahoma and central Texas. The males or females arrive at the breeding site first.

The mountain bluebird breeds in high mountain meadows with scattered trees and bushes and short grass. In winters, they live at lower elevations in plains and grasslands. The lovely mountain bluebird (Sialia arctcia) was made the official state bird of Idaho in 1931. The male mountain bluebird is a brilliant sky-blue, the female is gray with blue on her wings and tail.

The bluebird family is especially common in Idaho’s mountains. Idaho recognizes two bird symbols; the peregrine falcon is the official state raptor. The mountain bluebird is currently the state bird of Nevada. The Mountain Bluebird has a large range, estimated globally at 4,400,000 square kilometers.

Native to Canada, the United States, and Mexico, the mountain bluebirds prefer grassland, forest, and shrubland ecosystems. The global population of this bird is estimated at 5,200,000 individuals and does not show signs of decline that would necessitate inclusion on the IUCN Red List. For this reason, the current evaluation status of the Mountain Bluebird is Least Concern. The Mountain Bluebird is most likely to be confused with other bluebirds.

Male Mountain Bluebirds lack any reddish coloration on their underparts unlike Eastern and Western Bluebirds. Females are more difficult to separate. Eastern Bluebirds have a brownish throat and white belly while Mountain Bluebirds have gray throats and bellies. Western Bluebirds are browner on the breast than Mountain Bluebirds and have thicker bills.

Male Mountain Bluebirds might be confused with other all blue birds like Indigo Buntings and Blue Grosbeaks but these birds have much thicker, conical bills.

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Sources I Used:

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Mountain_Bluebird/id

http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/mountain-bluebird

http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/mountainbluebird.htm

http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/symbol-official-item/idaho/state-bird/mountain-bluebird

http://identify.whatbird.com/obj/581/overview/Mountain_Bluebird.aspx

http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/infocenter/i7680id.html

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/california_quail/id

http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/californiaquail.htm

http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/california-quail

http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/rsgis2/search/Display.asp?FlNm=callcali

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/American_Tree_Sparrow/id

http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/american-tree-sparrow

http://birdweb.org/birdweb/bird/american_tree_sparrow

http://www.biokids.umich.edu/critters/Spizella_arborea/

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Song_Sparrow/id

http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/song-sparrow

Books I Recommend: The Remarkable Journey of Prince Jen by Lloyd Alexander

Hi there! This is the 13th book recommendation list below this sentence!

1. The Remarkable Journeyby Lloyd Alexander
2. The Little Mermaidby Disney
3. The Trouble with Magicby Ruth Chews
4. Genie Wishesby Elizabeth Dahl
5. Stained Glassby Michael Bedard
6. A Gathering of Daysby Joan W. Blos
7. Belle’s Star Pupby Disney
8. Rapunzel’s Taleby Disney
9. Rapunzel’s Royal Partyby Disney
10. Robots Don’t Catch Chicken Poxby Debbie Dadey & Marcia Thorton Jones
11. Trolls Don’t Ride Roller Coastersby Debbie Dadey & Marcia Thorton Jones
12. The Penderwicks at Point Mouetteby Jeanne Birdsall
13. Fantastic Mr. Foxby Ronald Dahl
14. Getting Near to Babyby Audrey Couloumbis
15. No Castles Hereby A.C.E Bauer
16. The Arm of the Starfishby Madeline L’Engle
17. The Birds of Pandemoniumby Michele Raffin

(anazon affilitates are above)