Books I Recommend: Horrible Harry and the Dead Letters by Suzy Kline

Hey, everyone! This is the 48th book recommendation. I hope you enjoy! Who knew that with inspiration from a book could give you such a huge fabulous idea? So amazing the way life works.

1. Horrible Harry and the Dead Letters by Suzy Kline

2. Horrible Harry At Halloween by Suzy Kline

3. Lydia the Reading Fairy by Daisy Meadows

4. Hawks by Sharon Sharth

5. Mississippi by Pamela Dell

6.  Who Stole New Year’s Eve? by Martha Freeman

7. Oklahoma by Tamra B. Orr

8. Skillet Bread, Sourdough, and Vinegar Pie by Loretta Frances Ichord

9. Florida by Tamra B. Orr

10. Prietta and the Ghost Woman by Escrito Por Gloria Anzaldúa

11. The Race for the Chinese Zodiac by Gabrielle Wang

12. Yoshiko and the Foreigner by Mimi Otey Little

13. Stars Will Shine by Cynthia Rylant

14. The Beautiful Butterfly by Judy Sierra

15. The Prince of the Dolomites by Tomie De Paola

16. Unicorns and Other Magical Creatures by John Hamilton

17. How They Built the Statue of Liberty by Mary J. Shapiro

18. Paint the Wild by Pam Munoz Ryan

19. Full Cicada Moon by Marilyn Hilton

20. Cat Walk by Mary Stolz

21. The Star Maker by Laurence Yep

22. Violet Mackerel’s Remarkable Recovery by Anna Branford

23. Under the Lagoon by Kiki Thorpe

24. The Great Detective Race by Gertrude Chandler Warner

25. The Pumpkin Head Mystery by Gertrude Chandler Warner

26. Born To Fly by Michael Ferrari

27. Henry Huggins and the Paper Route by Beverly Clearly

28. The Summer of the Swans by Betsy Byars

29. Starring Prima! by Jacquelyn Mitchard

30. The Mysterious Edge of the Heroic World by E.L. Konigsburg

31. Gold by Milton Meltzer

32. Paleontology by Susan H. Gray

33. Butterflies and Moths by George S. Fichter

34. Ladybug by Barrie Watts

35. Uranium by Tyrone Mineo

36. Rocks by Roy A. Gallant

37. Heidi Heckelbeck Is a Flower Girl by Wanda Coven

38. 2015 Almanac For Kids by Scholastic Inc.

39. I Believe In Unicorns by Michael Morpurgo

40. I Am Sacagawea by Grace Norwich

41. Lunch Money by Andrew Clements

42. Mae the Panda Fairy by Daisy Meadows

43. Over My Dead Body by Kate Klise

44. Ramona and Her Father by Beverly Clearly

45. Autumn’s Secret Gift by Elise Allen

46. The Bright Shadow by Avi

47. Splash! by Melvin and Gilda Berger

48. Paper Fliers by Alan Folder

49. Photography For Children by George Sullivan

50. Very Short Fairy Tales To Read Together by Mary Ann Hoberman

(The blue links are Amazon Affiliates). 

Learn About Christmas

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Hello, everyone! You might want to know more about Christmas. Thank you for visiting my blog! Christmas is my favorite holiday. In Argentina, the weather is almost always warm at Christmas. Preparations for Christmas begin very early in December and … Continue reading

Interesting Facts About Rocks

Hey there! I’m researching rocks because I’m curious about them. I also like rocks because they are so interesting. Enjoy!

Geologists define rocks as aggregate of minerals. Minerals are naturally occurring, not unhealthy substances with specific chemical compositions and structures. A rock can be filled of many crystals of one or more minerals, or combinations of many minerals. Several exceptions, such as coal and obsidian, are not composed of minerals but are thought to be rocks.

People often use rocks for include building materials, roofs, sculpture, jewelry, tombstones, chalk, coal for heat, and more. Oil and natural gas can also be found in rocks. Many metals like a fork are made from rocks known as ores. Even, prehistoric humans used rocks as early as 2,000,000 B.C. Flint and other hard rocks were very important raw materials for crafting arrowheads and other special natural made rocks.

Around 500,000 B.C., rock caves and structures made from stones had become important forms of shelter for early man. During that time, early men had learned to use fire, a development that allowed humans to cook food as needed to survive and greatly expand their geographical range. Eventually, most likely no sooner than 5000 B.C., humans had realized that minerals such as gold and copper could be from rocks. Tons of ancient monuments were crafted from stone, including the pyramids of Egypt, built from limestone about 2500 B.C., and the buildings of Chichen Itza in Mexico, also of limestone, built near A.D. 450.

Since the 1500s, scientists have studied minerals and mining, fundamental aspects of the study of rocks. Georg Bauer published Concerning Metallic Things in 1556. By 1785, the British geologist James Hutton published Theory of the Earth, in which he explained his observations of rocks in Great Britain and his conclusion that Earth is much older than previous scientists before him had guessed. Geologists are scientists who study the earth and rocks, distinguish three main groups of rocks: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks.

These distinctions are made on the basis of the types of minerals in the rock, the shapes of individual mineral grains, and the overall texture of the rock, all of which indicate the environment, pressure, and temperature in which the rock was made. Igneous rocks form when magma is below the land of the Earth or lava at the land of the Earth hardens. The minerals in the rock will make crystals or grow together so that the separate crystals make 1 crystal altogether. Igneous rocks and magma make up much of the oceanic and continental crust, as well as most of the rock deeper in the Earth.

Igneous rocks can be identified by the interlocking appearance of the crystals in them. Typical igneous rocks do not have a layered texture, but exceptions exist. For example, in large bodies of igneous rock, relatively thick crystals that are made early can sink to the bottom of the magma, and less thick layers of crystals that are made later can accumulate on top. Igneous rocks can form deep within the Earth or at the surface of the Earth in volcanoes.

In general, igneous rocks that form deep within the Earth have large crystals that indicate a longer period of time during which the magma cools. Igneous rocks that form at or near the surface of the Earth, such as volcanic igneous rocks, cool quickly and contain smaller crystals that are difficult to see without magnification. Obsidian, also called volcanic glass, cools down so fast that no crystals are made. Nevertheless, obsidian is considered to be an igneous rock.

Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of how much minerals there are and the size of the crystals in the rock. Extrusive igneous rocks have small crystals and crystallize at or near the Earth’s surface. Intrusive igneous rocks cool slowly below the Earth’s surface and have larger crystals. Rocks made up of thick, dark-colored minerals like olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, and plagioclase are called mafic igneous rocks.

Light-colored, less thick minerals, including quartz, mica, and feldspar are called felsic igneous rocks. Common igneous rocks include the felsic igneous rocks granite and rhyolite, and the mafic igneous rocks gabbro and basalt. Granite is an intrusive igneous rock that includes large crystals of the minerals quartz, feldspar, mica, and amphibole that form deep within the Earth. Rhyolite includes the same minerals, but forms as extrusive igneous rock near the surface of the Earth or in volcanoes and cools quickly from magma or lava, so its crystals are difficult to observe with the naked eye.

Similarly, gabbro is more coarse-grained than basalt and made deeper down in the Earth, but both rocks include the minerals pyroxene, feldspar, and olivine. Fabulous exposures of igneous rocks occur in the volcanoes of Hawaii, volcanic rocks of Yellowstone National Park are located in Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, in Lassen Volcanic National Park and Yosemite National Park in California. Sedimentary rocks are those made of grains of preexisting rocks or organic material that, in most cases, have been eroded, deposited, compacted, and cemented together. They typically form at the surface of the Earth as sediment moves as a result of the action of wind, water, ice, gravity, or a combination of these.

Sedimentary rocks also form as chemicals precipitate from seawater, or through accumulation of organic material such as plant debris or animal shells. Common sedimentary rocks include shale, sandstone, limestone, and conglomerate. Sedimentary rocks typically have a layered appearance because most sediments are deposited in horizontal layers and are buried beneath later deposits of sediments over long periods of time. Sediments deposited rapidly, however, tend to be poorly layered if layers are visible at all.

Sedimentary rocks are made in many different environments at the surface of the Earth. Eolian, or wind blown, sediments can accumulate in deserts. Rivers carry sediments and deposit them along their banks or into lakes or oceans. Glaciers make unusual deposits of a wide variety of sediments that they pick up as the glacier expands and moves; glacial deposits are well exposed in the northern United States. Sediments can travel in currents below sea level to the deepest parts of the ocean floor.

Secretion of calcium carbonate shells by reef-building organisms produce large quantities of limestone. Evaporation of seawater has resulted in the formation of widespread layers of salt and gypsum. Swamps rich in plants can produce coal if organic material accumulates and is buried before aerobic bacteria can destroy the dead plants. Sedimentary rocks are classified on the basis of the sizes of the particles in the rock and the composition of the rock.

Clastic sedimentary rocks comprise fragments of preexisting rocks and minerals. Chemical precipitates are sedimentary rocks that are made by precipitation of minerals from seawater, salt lakes, or mineral-rich springs. Organic sedimentary rocks formed from organic matter or organic activity, such as coal and limestone made by reef-building organisms like coral. Grain sizes in sedimentary rocks range from fine clay and silt to sand to boulders.

The sediment in a sedimentary rock reflects its environment of deposition. For example, wind-blown sand grains commonly is evidence of abrasion of their surfaces as a result of colliding with other grains. Sediments transported long distances tend to decrease in size and are more rounded than sediment deposited near their precursor rocks because of wearing against other sediments or rocks. Large or heavy sediments tend to wear out of water or wind if the energy of the water or wind is insufficient to carry the sediments.

Sediments deposited rapidly as a result of slides or slumps tend to include a larger range of sediment sizes, from large boulders to pebbles to sand grains and flakes of clay. Such rocks are called conglomerate. Along beaches, the rhythmic activity of waves moving sediment back and forth produces sandstones in which the grains are well rounded and of similar size. Glaciers pick up and carry a wide variety of sediments and often scratch or scrape the rocks over which they travel.

Sedimentary rocks are the only rocks in which fossils can be preserved because at the elevated temperatures and pressures in which igneous and metamorphic rocks form, fossils and organic remnants are ruined. The presence of fossils and the types of fossil organisms in a rock provide clues about the environment and age of sedimentary rocks. For example, fossils of human beings are not present in rocks older than approximately two million years because humans did not exist before then. Similarly, dinosaur fossils do not occur in rocks younger than about 65 million years because dinosaurs became extinct at that very time.

Fish fossils in sedimentary rock indicate that the sediments that make up the rock were deposited in a lake, river, or marine environment. By establishing the environment of the fossils in a rock, scientists learn more about the conditions under which the rock formed.

Spectacular exposures of sedimentary rocks include the Grand Canyon which is in Arizona, the eolian sandstones of Zion National Park which is in Utah, the limestones of Carlsbad National Park which is in New Mexico, and glacial features of Voyageurs National Park which is in Minnesota. Metamorphic rocks are named for the process of change that affects rocks. The changes that make metamorphic rocks usually include rises in the temperature (generally to 392°F) and the pressure of a precursor rock, which can be igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic, to a degree that the minerals in the rock are no longer stable. The rock might change in mineral content or appearance, or even both. Clues to identifying metamorphic rocks include the presence of minerals such as mica, amphibole, staurolite, and garnet, and layers in which minerals are aligned as a result of pressure applied to the rock.

Common metamorphic rocks include slate, schist, and gneiss. Metamorphic rocks commonly are made in mountains such as the Appalachian Mountains, parts of California, and the ancient, eroded metamorphic rocks in the Llano Uplift of central Texas. Metamorphic rocks are classified depending on their constituent minerals and texture. Foliated metamorphic rocks are those that have a layered texture. In foliated metamorphic rocks, elongate or platy minerals such as mica and amphibole become aligned as a result of pressure on the rock. Foliation can range from alternating layers of light and dark minerals typical of gneiss to the seemingly perfect alignment of platy minerals in slate.

Some metamorphic rocks aren’t foliated and have a massive texture devoid of layers. Mineralogy of metamorphic rocks reflects the mineral content of the precursor rock and the pressure and temperature at which metamorphism occurs. As sediments undergo metamorphism, the layers of sediment can be folded or become more pronounced as pressure on the rock increases. Elongate or platy minerals in the rock tend to become aligned in the same direction.

For example, when shale metamorphoses to slate, it becomes easier to split the well-aligned layers of the slate into thin, flat sheets. This property of slate makes it an attractive roofing material. Marble-metamorphosed limestone typically does not have the pronounced layers of slate, but is used for flooring and sculptures.

Metamorphism of igneous rocks can cause the different minerals in the rocks to separate into layers. When granite metamorphoses into gneiss, layers of light-colored minerals and dark-colored minerals form. As with sedimentary rocks, elongate or platy minerals become well-aligned as pressure on the rock increases.

As sediments undergo metamorphism, the layers of sediment can be folded or become more pronounced as pressure on the rock increases. Elongate or platy minerals in the rock tend to become aligned in the same direction. For example, when shale metamorphoses to slate, it becomes easier to split the well-aligned layers of the slate into thin, flat sheets. This property of slate makes it an attractive roofing material.

Marble-metamorphosed limestone-typically does not have the pronounced layers of slate, but is used for flooring and sculptures. Metamorphism of igneous rocks can cause the different minerals in the rocks to separate into layers. When granite metamorphoses into gneiss, layers of light-colored minerals and dark-colored minerals are made. As with sedimentary rocks, elongate or platy minerals become well-aligned as pressure on the rock increases.

It is possible for metamorphic rocks to change into other metamorphic rocks. In some regions, especially areas where mountain building is taking place, it is not unusual for several episodes of change to affect rocks. It can be difficult to unravel the effects of each episode of metamorphism. The word igneous comes from the Latin word ignis which means of fire. Sedimentary rocks make layers at the bottoms of oceans and lakes.

Layers of sedimentary rocks are called strata.

I got this photo at http://www.hydroponicsnewyorkcity.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/river-rocks.jpgimage but originally Google Images.

What Websites I used:

http://science.jrank.org/pages/5919/Rocks.html

http://www.ducksters.com/science/rocks.php

Books I Recommend: Waterbirds by David Chandler

Hi there! This is the 22nd book recommendation list.

1. Waterbirds by David Chandler
2. Eagles by Rebecca L. Grambo
3. The Fortune-Tellersby Lloyd Alexander
4. Arizonaby Mari Kesselring
5. Leprechaun Goldby Teresa Baterman
6. Thanksgiving All Aroundby Mike Berenstain
7. Miracles on Maple Hillby Virginia Sorensen
8. Esperanza Risingby Pam Muñoz Ryan
9. Hope the Happiness Fairyby Daisy Meadows
10. Cassidy the Costume Fairyby Daisy Meadows
11. Anya the Cuddly Creatures Fairyby Daisy Meadows
12. Elisa the Royal Adventure Fairyby Daisy Meadows
13. Lizzie the Sweet Treats Fairy: A Rainbow Magic Bookby Daisy Meadows
14. Maddie the Fun and Games Fairyby Daisy Meadows
15. Eva the Enchanted Ball Fairyby Daisy Meadows
16. Cinderella Stays Lateby Joan Holub & Suzanne Willams
17. Secret Admirerby Jane O’Conner
18. Tofu Quiltby Ching Yeung Russell
19. The Mystery Girlby Gertrude Warner Chandler
20. Dying to Meet Youby Kate Klise
21. Doggone It!by Nancy Krulik
22. Any Way You Slice Itby Nancy Krulik
23. Going Overboard!by Nancy Krulik
24. Fern the Green Fairyby Daisy Meadows
25. Fira and the Full Moonby Disney

(amazon affilates)

Life as An Autumn Gold Apple

Hi there! This may help you learn more about the apple. You are about to enter a life of an apple that you might know about.

I was born as a seed in November 19, 1900. Until spring arrived, I slept. When I woke up, I was a tree.

I grew apples and people came and picked the apples off of me. So the people made new seeds. After my apples were gone, everyone sat under me.

I felt loved until autumn. The leaves started falling off me for the kids to play with. Finally, winter came and I fell asleep.

When I woke up again, I had apple blossoms on me. Then, I grew more apples. Meanwhile, the seeds from my apples were young trees and they did the same thing.

As I got older, more people were able to play on me. One day, I got so old no one was able to play with me. That night, a strong thunderstorm tore one of my branches.

So they had to cut me down. They had a funeral for me. I was 49 years old. From then on, the people used my stump as something useful.

The other trees lived to be 100 years old. To this day, my apples are all over the world. So whenever you eat an autumn gold apple, just remember this story.

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I got this photo at Google Images but the main place it came from was http://m.recipetips.com/glossary-term/t–38648/crimson-gold-apple.asp.

Books I Recommend: Snow Wonder by Charles Ghigna

Hi there! This is my 21st book recommendation list. Just a friendly reminder: Authors who have found one of their books in my 21 book recommendation lists, just me know. Enjoy, yourself!

1. Snow Wonderby Charles Ghigna
2. Louisa May’s Battle by Kathleen Krull
3. Liberty’s Voiceby Erica Silverman
4. The Legend of the Candy Caneby Lori Walburg
5. Wizards Don’t Wear Graduation Gownsby Debbie Dadey and Marcia Thorton Jones
6. The Hidden Goldby Sarah Masters Buckey
7. The Crystal Ballby Jacqueline Dembar Greene
8. Danger at the Zooby Kathleen Ernest
9. Kit Saves The Dayby Valerie Tripp
10. Secrets in the Hillsby Kathleen Ernest
11. Some Good Newsby Cynthia
Rylant
12. Summer Partyby Cynthia Rylant
13. Kit’s Surpriseby Valerie Tripp
14. Josefina’s Surpriseby Valerie Tripp
15. Samantha’s Surpriseby Maxine Rose Schur
16. Troublemakerby Andrew Clements
17. The Mystery of the Mixed-up Zooby Gertrude Chandler Warner
18. The Hurricane Mysteryby Gertrude Chandler Warner
19. A Week in the Woodsby Andrew Clements
20. Changes for Josefinaby Valerie Tripp
21. The Mystery In The Caveby Gertrude Chandler Warner
22. The Animal Shelter Mysteryby Gertrude Chandler Warner
23. The Year the Swallows Came Earlyby Kathryn Fitzmaurice
24. Thanks to Josefina by Valerie Tripp

(amazon affiliates)

Books I Recommend: A Place Where Sunflowers Grow by Amy Lee-Tai

Hi there! This is the 19th book recomendation.

1. A Place Where Sunflowers Growby Amy Lee-Tai
2. The Quilt Storyby Tony Johnston & Tomie dePaola
3. That Book Womanby Heather Henson
4. Everything New Under the Sunby Anne Mazer
5. Dumpling Daysby Grace Lin
6. Bailey the Babysitter Fairyby Daisy Meadows
7. Blue Jasmineby Kashmira Sheth
8. Addison the April Fool’s Day Fairyby Daisy Meadows
9. The Prayer of Jabez for Kidsby Bruce Wilkinson
10. Writing Magicby Gail Carson Levine
11. All That Glitters Isn’t Goldby Anne Mazer
12. The New Year Dragon Dilemmaby Ron Roy
13. Caroline and Her Sisterby Maria D. Wilkes
14. Little House by Boston Bayby Melissa Wiley
15. House Of Happiness by Neil Phillips
16. Red Butterflyby A.L. Sonnichsen
17. Greenby Laura Peyton Roberts
18. Brookfield Daysby Maria D. Wilkes
19. Is Everyone Moonburned but Me?by Stella Pevsner
20. Flamingoes by Melissa Gish
21. Birds by Dominic Couzens
22. A Kid’s First Book of Birdwatchingby Scott Weidensaul
23. Little Town on the Prairieby Laura Ingalls Wilder

(Amazon Affilate Links above)

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